Ewa Sio

This web is still being woven. Please don't be surprised if it changes slightly from time to time...

Phonemes, Phonetics, and Orthography

Written a i u e o s th sh f v w m n ng l h y x '
IPA a i u e o s θ ʃ f v w m~b n ŋ l h j ħ ʔ

Syllable structure is generally (C)V or rarely (C(w/y))V(n/m).

Some dialects pronunce /ħ/, /ʔ/, and /θ/ as /x/, /k/, and /t/, respectively.

Orthography

Current version of the writing system can be found here. Since the writing system is not a standard alphabet, I was not able to make a font out of it -- were it a conventional ajbad or syllabary, I might have been able to reskin with something else, but I could not be bothered, so here we are.


Vocabulary

Pronouns

he'e
you (formal)
ye
you (informal)
tha'i
I (formal)
si
I (informal, f)
thai
I (informal, m)
uthi
he
esi
she, they (pl)
nge
it, this
ngua
that
enaha
what
sang
who
eyitha
where

Familial Terms

ma'a
mother, woman
ye'a
father, man
lili
daughter, girl
yiyi
son, boy
sao
brother (of a boy), sister (of a girl)
moia'a
older sister (of a boy), aunt
yaoa'a
older brother (of a girl), uncle
lioa
younger sister (of a boy)
yioa
younger brother (of a girl)
meamea
grandmother (maternal)
maimai
grandmother (paternal)
yoeyoe
grandfather (maternal)
'ai'ai
grandfather (paternal)

Nouns

asha
light
ayi'in
finger, toe, end, extremity; farthest part
eon
coat, cloak
fa'ama
body
he
fire
hin
(smaller) part
hiyi(hwa)
baby, little child
isen
time
la'a
existence, state of being
li
opposite, that which is not (something)
li we
south
luxa
head, top(most) part of something
sa'ao
water
sifa
peace
suom
foot, bottom(most) part of something
ona
earth
ne
(compass) direction
neo
hill
noya
heart, chest, center
'aman
wind
'omo
tree, plant
'ua
limb
thia
bird
thone
knife, cutting tool
vi
insect, beetle
wi'a
strength, power, energy
wiyen
needle
ufa
sky
ufea
sun
ximi
sword (loanword, from kibi, "blade") (replaces archaic noya thone, "great knife")
xone
egg

Directions

ximi/wiyen ha ne
north ('the sword's direction', 'the needle's direction')
li wiyen ha ne
south
ela oseo ufea ha ne
east (lit. 'the rising sun's direction')
ela asihao ufea ha ne
west (lit. 'the falling sun's direction')

Verbs

aeo
to trade
ahuo'o
to shine, to sparkle
amo
to sing
asihao
to fall, to descend
elo
to pray
hao
to outweight, to be greater than
ini'ao
to tell, to explain
ino
to love
itheo
to see
laxao
to wear
luo
to make, to cause
metheo
to understand, to know of (trans.); to be wise (intrans.)
nguio
to strike, to attack
oseo
to rise, to stand up
o'ehuo
to blow (wind); to cry, to howl, to call
samo
to wrap, to fold
sheo
to have (a trait)
sho
to search for
sio
to speak, to say
soeo
to stand, to be (somewhere)
sowo
to agree
thuo
to hear
uatho
to journey, to travel
uvao
to go (without), to abandon, to be deprived of
xeo
to learn (of) (trans.), to be a student (intrans.)
xiweo
to resemble, to behave like (trans); to be a copy or fake (intrans.)
waho
to come
wo'ao
to go
yayo
to give up (trying something)

Adjectives, Adverbs, and Prepositions

hahwa
small
hiawa
close, tight
hi'i
before, beneath
hu'e
complete, finished
ingi
quick
fen
any
manai
warm
mila
but
myoen
healthy, well
ngia
now
noi
more
noya
great, large
satha
cold
sathe
all
'ie
around
umya
after, above
voa
not
xa
while, as
xaha'a
at the time of...

mi'un
black, dark
ashan
white, light
sem
red

Conjunctions

aya
or
fi
and
isim
so, therefore
mila
but
sa sa
(and) then

Particles

ha
(genitive)
ngo
(intrumentative/locative)
me
(vocative)
hoi
(binary question marker) (used at beginning of sentence)
xin
(follows a verb, indicates passive form)

Greetings, Niceties, etc.

he'e me waho thatha'i
(formal greeting, lit. "You're coming toward us")
ye me waho thathai
(informal version of same)
hoi ye la'a myoen?
How are you? (inf., "are you well?")
waho sifa ngo
(common, more neutral greeting, lit. "come in peace")
wo'ao sifa ngo
(common farewell, lit. "go with peace")
yima'me
thank you
sihosi
please (see grammar notes)

hwa
(diminutive suffix)

Numbers

e
1
xi
2
ve
3
sa
4
an
5
an fi e
6 (lit. "5 and 1")
an fi xi
7
an fi ve
8
an fi sa
9
an xi
10 (lit. "fives" (dual))
an xi fi e
11
an xi fi xi
12
an xi fi ve
13
an xi fi sa
14
anan
15 (lit. "fives" (plural))
anan fi e
16
anan fi xi
17
anan fi ve
18
anan fi sa
19
anan fi an
20
anan fi an fi e
21
anan fi an xi
25
anan xi
30
anan xi fi an
35
anan xi fi an xi
40
anan xi fi anan
45
vyo
60
vyo fi e
61
vyo fi an fi e
66
vyo fi an xi
70
vyo fi anan
75
vyo fi anan xi
90
vyo xi
120
vyovyo
180

Grammar

Overview

Mostly isolating, with postpositional particles. Copula dropping. Word order partly indicates mode: SOV for declarative or interrogative (with a marker for binary questions), SVO for imperative.

Plurals

Plurals form by reduplicating first syllable, or first two if the first syllable has a null onset and no coda. Doubled vowels are merged.

For example:
on·a ⟶ on·on·a
hi·yi ⟶ hi·hi·yi
u·fau·fa·u·fa
a·shaa·sha·a·sha

The word for two (xi) is often used as a dual suffix, instead of pluralizing for two things. Nouns given numbers are not pluralized.

Two trees: 'omo xi
Trees (2 or more): 'o'omo

th

Verb Conjugation

Ewa Sio does not distinguish between future and present tense, only past and non-past. Negatives are made by preceding a verb with /voa/ ("not").

TenseFormUsage
Pastai ...VERBed
Past Continuoushi'i ...was VERBing
Past Perfecthi'i ... hu'ehave VERBed
Non-Past-VERBs, will VERB
Non-Past Continuousngia ...is VERBing, will be VERBing
Non-Past Perfect... hu'ehas VERBed, will have VERBed

Modifying Verbs

Verbs can be modified with adjectives the same way as nouns are. Adjectives are basically always also adverbs.

Verbs as Modifiers

To modify a noun with a verb, the structure is "ela [VERB] [NOUN]".

Example:

ela asihao ufea
the setting sun

Verb-Based Nouns

The phrases for "that which VERBS" and "that which is VERBed" are "ela [VERB]" and "ewa [VERB]" respectively. The /ela/ and /ewa/ are from the archaic nominative and accusative forms of /e/ ("one").

Please...

Requests are made by incorporating the word /sihosi/ ("please") somewhere into the sentence. Placement can vary significantly, but the end of the sentence is usually seen as more mature and nicer sounding, whereas the beginning suggests more desperation or need, but can imply an especially humble request.

Historical Grammar

Historically, Ewa Sio had a mostly free word order with six particles: la (nominative), wa (accusative), ha (genitive), ngo (instrumentative), nga (locative), and me (vocative).

Modern Ewa Sio's word order is more fixed, and it only uses three: ha (genitive), ngo (instrumentative and locative), and me (vocative.)

Translations

The North Wind and the Sun

xaha'a wiyen ha ne ha 'aman fi ufea sang ela hao wi'a hi'i nomoelo, ela ai uatho fi manai eon laxao ai waho.
at-the-time-when needle GEN way GEN wind and sun what one-that is-greater strength PAST-CONT argue, one-that PAST travel and warm cloak wear PAST come
While the direction-of-the-needle (North)'s wind and the sun were arguing who was the greater power, one who traveled and wore a warm cloak came.

esi ela e ngo ela uatho eon lewo luo, ela hao ai sowo.
they one-that first one-that travels cloak remove cause, one-that (is) stronger PAST agree
They agreed the one that first will make the traveler remove the cloak was the greater one.

wiyen ha ne ha 'aman, sathe nge ha wi'a ngo, ai o'ehuo o'ehuo...
north wind, all it GEN strength INSTR, PAST blow blow...
The North wind, with all its strength, blew and blew...

... mila xa noi ai o'ehuo, ela uatho eon noi hiawa ai samo, fi umya iseng iseng, wiyen ha ne ha 'aman ai yayo.
... but as more PAST blow, one-that travels cloak more close PAST fold, and after time time, north wind PAST gave-up
... but as (it) blew more, the traveller folded the cloak more closely, and after much time, the North wind gave up.

sa sa, ufea manai ai ahuo'o, fi ela uatho eon ingi ai lewo.
then, sun warm PAST shine and one-that travels cloak quick PAST remove
Then, the sun shone warm, and quickly the traveler took off the cloak.

sa isim, wiyen ha ne ha 'aman ewa ufea ha wi'a ai hao sio luo ai.
and so, north wind one-that-is sun GEN strength PAST is-greater say cause PAST (was)
And so, the North wind was (one that was) made to say the Sun's strength was greater.

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