[talna.bjak.ʃa] mother.island.tongue, sometimes [ʃa.dam.dalta.bjak]
"Talnabyak tongue" ("Mother-Isle-tongue"), also called Shami ("our tongue"), or Shadam Daltabyak ("Motherland's tongue") in the isles. Related to Satecaan, from before the Nalishi split off as sea-nomads.
* (Not usually written as a separate sound. See phonotactics below.)
Structure: generally (C(Y))V(N), where:
C = any consonant
Y = [j], sometimes [l], [r]
V = any vowel
N = [β], [ʃ], any liquid, nasal, stop, or uvular fricative.
Max complexity is CCVC, though a consonant in the Y position, especially one other than [j], is rare.
Gemination is written with doubled characters. /t͡ɕ:/~/tt͡ɕ/ in particular is written irregularly as "tc".
Syllabic [n̩][ṃ][l̩] are allophones of [ən][əm][əl], [n:][m:][l:], and [ʔn][ʔm][ʔl].
Final /ɾ/ typically mutates into /d/.
Consonant voicing becomes irrelevant before [j].
Aspiration is not distinguished on final stops.
Some basic consonant harmony: CC clusters take the voicing of the second sound. So [ʃd] becomes [ʒd], but [ʒt] becomes [ʃt].
Most words for people are classed by natural gender.
*Diminutives, generally reserved for one's own family.
Can be made nouns with by adding a definite article. If there is an actor associated with a verb, it takes the actors' gender; otherwise, most verbs are male if they end in a vowel, or neuter if not. Exceptions are noted in entries.
*For counting objects, this is conjugated based on the appropriate gendered plural of the noun in question.
Word order is SOV, with adjectives after nouns, more conservatively alike to Sateca'an. Nouns have three gender/classes, male/female/neuter, and adjectives and verbs conjugate for gender. Pronouns for subjects are generally dropped. Subject nouns also do not pluralize.
Use a suffix conjugated by noun gender. For nouns ending in nasals, the suffix becomes voiced.
Numbers pluralize by the gender of their nouns.
shuta rokhedaga byak
road.POSS-3RD-INAN-M ten.PL-F.four land
(is)land of forty roads
lelithi roḥan phewa shé khindji
lɛlitʰi roxan pʰɛwa ʃe kʰind͡ʒi
child.POSS-1ST-M ten.PL-N.three.and.nine 3RD-ANIM-PL.be NEG
I do not have thirty-nine children.
Talnakbyasha has very complex verb conjugation, based on the tense of the verb and the person, gender, and animacy of the subject.
The syllabic consonant prefixes ṃ and (i)n̩ turn any syllabic consonant directly after it into a normal consonant. This can create some interesting irregular conjugations due to other vowel mutations. Ex: n̩wara, "to write" ->ṃnóra, "it writes", and n̩óra, "they write".
Tenses are similar to Sateca'an, including the conditional forms.
san (I was)
shiḥún (I went)
sos (I was being)
shiḥús (I was going)
sen (If I was...)
shiḥúyen (If I went...)
sa (I am)
shiḥú (I go)
sas (I am being)
shiḥús (I am going)
sin (If I am...)
shiḥúyin (If I go (now)...)
sam (I will be)
shiḥúm (I will go)
shos (I will be being)
shiḥúyos (I will be going)
shi (If I will be...)
shiḥúyi (If I (will) go...)
The copular a is deleted in most conjugations, leaving only the combined prefix and suffix. It also conjugates irregularly in a few forms.
The strings [sy], [ty], and [dy] generally become [ʃ], [t͡ɕ], and [ʑ].
eda shi kaya
here tree 3RD-INAN-NEG.be.PRES
There are no trees here.
Questions, especially binary/yes-no questions, are formed with the negative form of the verb, followed by the same negative repeated at the end of the sentence.
Adjectives conjugate by the noun's gender with suffixes. The suffix -ka negates.
|M||-n, -nu, -[:]u|
For masculine forms, the suffix is -n after vowels, -nu after most consonants, and -du or -tu after [d] or [t].
Possessives are marked with a suffix on the possessed noun, conjugated according to the possessor.
To say you have something, you say [the possessor]'s [thing] exists.
dalta idin, lelidim n̩shiyen
mother 3RD-ANIM-F-SG.be.PRES-COND child.F-POSS 3RD-ANIM-N-SG.be.PAST
If she is a mother, she had a child (lit. "her child existed".)
A member of the Sate family, Kintsaya is a more distance cousin of Sateca'an and modern Talnabyaksha and Satcicaan. It is also based on my oldest conlang, Sukinsar, which is not showing up any time soon because I made it when I was like 13 and it sucked.
a i u ɛ~e (e) o aɪ (ý) ə
b p f v s t͡s t~ʈ* d~ɖ* tʃ (ch) dʒ (j) ʒ (sj) l~ɭ**~ɾ (l) ɣ (ǵ) x k g j (y) h m n w ʔ (')
*Allophone before /l/.
**Allophone in many places but esp. after /h/.
Sound harmony patterns - in multisyllabic tend to go in alternating patterns of unvoiced-C V voiced-C V etc. n and m can be either. See numbers for a decent example, albeit with exceptions (ex. 8, [keta]).
Word order is OSV, with binary questions indicated primarily by tone. Adjectives and prepositions follow nouns, with prepositions acting as suffixes; adverbs follow verbs.
No noun classes - Kintsaya has some animacy conjugation, like Satacaan, Sacishaan, and Talnabyaksha, but no gender/class system.
Auxiliary do [dʒa] is used for past and future tense. [li], 'not', is placed after verb to negate.
Verbs conjugate by animacy and number of the object, or for intransitive verbs, the subject, and by the person of the actor. Alignment is mixed between nominative-accusative and ergative-absolutive.
... see [someone]; [someone] sees
see them (anim.); they (anim.) see
... see [something]; [something] sees
... see them (inan.); they (inan.) see
The helper 'to do' is irregular, ignoring person and conjugating as follows:
|Anim. Sg.||Anim. Pl.||Inan. Sg.||Inan. Pl.|