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naūkeman

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Phonemes

a e i u o ū n y sh b t l t r k ng m h

Pronounciation Guide

a = "ah" like in tall or ahh
e = "eh" like in neck or bet
i = "ee" like in she or bee
u = "uh" like in fun or hut
o = "oh" like in bow or oh
ū = "oo" like in too or boot

There is no distinction between the letter t and d, s and z, b and p, k and g, or sh and ch. Their pronunciation can be either by convenience or accent, but tends toward the first. For consistency, all words here are spelled with the first letter and not the second.

Emphasis is typically on the first syllable of a word, or the second and last in words four syllables or longer. However, it is often shifted wherever is convenient in songs, poems, and even day-to-day speech, as it does not change the actual meaning of the words.

When speaking quickly or casually, the short "u" sound is often skipped or not voiced.

Vocabulary

Person Pronouns

na
I, me
she
they, them (sing.)
ū
it
tūe
they, them (plur.)
sa
you
tosho
she, her (honorific)
tūashe
he, him (honorific)
taotsha
they, them (sing. honorific)
naūe
we
nanim
someone, a person
naemiri
everyone
naeben
anyone
naiya
no one

Some Other Pronouns

ūs
thing, something
ūsmiri
everything
ūsebin
anything
ūseya
nothing

Question Words

anle
what
nelne
how
naile
who
onye
why
onsa
when
tolke
where

Common Words and Greetings

ingi, ngi
yes
ya, yasun
no
yannetrolun
hello (to someone new, or after long time apart)
ke'aron
hello, how are you?
sheben
welcome (greeting into one's home or other space)
yunbek'r
I'll see you soon
ūlyotsha
thank you

Family Members

basuntya, baba
mother
nanyūnta, nana
father
sonen
sibling
rona
sister
otshi
brother
ansun
child
ronsun
daughter
otshun
son
hona
friend

Nouns

ba
person
kenmi
food
komi
drinks
sarnem
dinner
ekask
breakfast
mayūt
city, town
kosanmi
book
maūnmi
story
tanla
house, home
tūln
game

Noun Affixes

le
(possessive suffix)
tya
(plural suffix)

Verbs

ingi, ngi
to be
ke... roen
to exist in/at...
kuen
to eat
koyi
to drink
na... lun
to go/come from...
yarani
to come here, to approach (the subject)
kyun... tūel
to arrive at...
yun... meli
to go to...
seben
to enter (somewhere), to visit
ūli
to do
noekin
sleep
ti... maūn
to say...
naūken
to speak...
ngen
to have
yangi
to bring
tren
to see
tyurni
to hear
tūin
to learn, to discover
soani
to read
sū... maen
to meet with...
sū... yan
to meet ... for the first time
rin
to buy...
teūn
to stand (up or in place)
amsan
to like
kern
to be present
... tener
to think/feel that something is... (self only)
... samyūn
to think/feel that something is... (other people)
... ūmūn...
to love...
... retner, retener
to want... (one's own desires) (see grammar for full guide)
... mūryūn
to want... (someone else wants)
ban
to play
kanri
to know, to be familiar with
tulten
to explain, to tell
busen
to lose
ilkan
to win
lūkūn
to defeat
ekin
to begin

Verb Affixes

oya-
(future tense prefix, formal)
o-
(future tense prefix, informal)
troe-, tro-
(recent past tense prefix)
ta-
(distant past tense prefix)

byū, byūka
(non-infinitive present tense (-ing), follows verb)
-sun
(negative suffix for verbs ending in -i)
-se
(negative suffix for verbs ending in -n)
sha-
(imperative prefix, precedes tense)

-mil
(-doer, one who VERBs) (follows negative)
-ūmi, -mi
(a thing that is VERBed) (follows negative, replaces "yemi")
-man
(archaic equivalent of "-ūmi")
ha
(makes gerund) (follows negative)
-yemi
(makes passive voice) (always precedes other suffixes)
... ang
can...

Time

beker
again (formal)
sana
then, in that time
sir
the whole time
atya
and then... (finally, after that)
iba
and then (standard verb connector)
yenha
now
ni
while (see grammar for more information)
nūsa
after, later
sarn
late, evening
ekis
early, morning
ek
before
bebeker
again and again
sonsa
finally, at long last
salar
ending

Location Pronouns

ranen
here
lunan
there (near/visible)
onarn
there (distant/unseen, formal)
onan
there (distant/unseen, informal)
toket
place, there
tokemiri
everywhere
tokebin
anywhere
tokeya
nowhere

Conjuctions and Prepositions

ke
in
na
from
yun
to/at (direction)
kyun
into, at (destination)
ti
(marks a quote)
ai
(suffix, marks nominative case (subject) in a sentence, when needed)
sen
(suffix, marks an indirect subject) (see grammar for more information)
bel
only (vaguely)
simat
only (exactly)
tya
using, with
and, along with
sūsun
without
te
or
ten
also, and (sentence connector)
unke
so (vague), because of this
sara
therefore, as a result
yueken
however, but (formal)
eken
but
kel
about

What Do I Call This Category

... (byūka) ...seber
for (to be offered to, to be used for)...
...nimūr
for (an action for the sake of)...
... (byūka) ...hoye
for (the purpose of doing)...
-tūa
(connects a verb phrase to phrase (usually a noun) to modify it)

Adjectives

sohu
many, much
koya
big
anyan
small
onen
far
lan
near
sang
favorite, loved
rea
wanted, desired (by the speaker)
mūr
wanted, desired (by someone else)
ūk
true
hanyak
just, fair, right
tun
serious, genuine
ayū
other
lovely, nice
sanar

Adverbs

especially ("not especially" when used with negative)
ot
(suffix converting adjective to adverb)

Grammar

Word Order

Word order is very loosely verb-object-subject (VOS), with the suffix "ai" sometimes used to mark nominative case (it may be omitted if the subject is clear.) Adjectives precede nouns.

Indirect Subject

(I have no idea what the actual word is for this, or if it's even a thing, so I'm improvising.)

The "indirect subject" marked by the suffix "sen" is a second subject in a sentence, typically for a hypothetical or indirectly referenced action as opposed to a more immediate one being discussed.

Examples of when this pronoun is used include:

An example of this form (with both markers, for clarity):

She ai sa sen yarani ha mūryūn
They want you to come to them.

Normally, though, both sentences could drop one or both of these markers.

For example: She, sa yarani ha mūryūn.

Doing One Thing, (While) Doing Another

The term "ni" is used to indicate an action happening alongside another.

The structure for this is: ACTION1 sū ACTION2 byūka ni. ("Byūka" can be shortened to "byū" when speaking informally.)

For example:

Na kosanmi trosoani sū teūn byū ni.
I read a book while standing

Sa naūken sū noekin byū ni.
You talk in your sleep.

This can also be simplified by removing "sū" and changing the tense of the second verb to match the first.

She onoekin, oteūn ni.
They will sleep standing up.

Wanting Things

To say someone wants something is a little bit complicated. One's own desires are described one way:

While other's desires are described differently, and in one case may need another suffix for a second person:

Purpose and Service

There are several ways to describe a purpose for action.

Seber: to do something in order to use the result for something, usually a noun that is not a person.

Na sarnem seber ū orin
I will buy it for dinner.

Hoye: to do something in order to perform another specified action.

She su rona maen hoye, yun mayūt meli
They go to the city to meet with their sister.

Nimūr: to do something for someone else, or for their sake.

Na baba nimūr ūs troyangi
I brought something for my mother.

Modifying With Verbs

One that verbs, one that is verbed

These two forms are build into verbs. The "mi"/"ūmi" suffix marks one that is VERBed, and the "mil" suffix marks one that VERBs.

Modifying nouns with verbs in other ways

Connect the verb phrase to the noun with "tūa". The subject and object of the verb should be before "tūa." For example:

ke tanla roen tosoani na tūa kosanmi
the book I read is in the house