Written: a e i u o ū n y sh s b t l r k ng m h
IPA: a e~ɛ i ʌ~ə o u n j ʃ~tʃ s~z b~p t~d l ɹ~ɾ k~g ŋ m h
a = "ah" like in tall or ahh
e = "eh" like in neck or bet
i = "ee" like in she or bee
u = "uh" like in fun or hut
o = "oh" like in bow or oh
ū = "oo" like in too or boot
There is no distinction between the letter t and d, s and z, b and p, k and g, or sh and ch. Their pronunciation can be either by convenience or accent, but tends toward the first. For consistency, all words here are spelled with the first letter and not the second.
Emphasis is typically on the first syllable of a word, or the second and last in words four syllables or longer. However, it is often shifted wherever is convenient in songs or poems, as it does not change the actual meaning of the words.
When speaking quickly or casually, the short "u" sound is often skipped or pronounces as a shwa (ə) instead. Words that have "u" in the first syllable may shift emphasis to the second.
they, them (sing.)
they, them (plur.)
she, her (honorific)
he, him (honorific)
they, them (sing. honorific)
someone, a person
Some Other Pronouns
Common Words and Greetings
hello (to someone new, or after long time apart)
hello, how are you?
hello (older, more formal)
welcome (greeting into one's home or other space)
I'll see you soon
picture, piece of artwork
to exist in/at...
to go/come from...
to come here, to approach (the subject)
to arrive at...
to go to...
to enter (somewhere), to visit
to learn, to discover
to meet with...
to meet ... for the first time
to stand (up or in place)
to be present
to think/feel that something is... (self only)
to think/feel that something is... (other people)
to want... (one's own desires) (see grammar for full guide)
to want... (someone else wants)
to know, to be familiar with
to be aware of, to understand
to explain, to tell
to possess, to contain (features, things)
to outdo, to be greater than
(future tense prefix, formal)
(future tense prefix, informal)
tro-, to-, t-
(recent past tense prefix)
(distant past tense prefix)
(continuous, follows verb)
(negative suffix for verbs ending in -i)
(negative suffix for verbs ending in -n or other)
(imperative prefix, precedes tense)
(-doer, one who VERBs) (follows negative)
(a thing that is VERBed) (follows negative, replaces "yemi")
(archaic equivalent of "-ūmi")
(makes gerund) (follows negative)
(makes passive voice) (always precedes other suffixes)
then, in that time
the whole time
and then... (finally, after that)
and then (standard verb connector)
while (see grammar for more information)
again and again
finally, at long last
there (distant/unseen, formal)
there (distant/unseen, informal)
Conjuctions, Prepositions, Etc
into, at (destination)
(marks a quote)
and, along with
also, and (sentence connector)
so (vague), because of this
therefore, as a result
however, but (formal)
What Do I Call This Category
for (to be offered to, to be used for)...
for (an action for the sake of)...
for (the purpose of doing)...
wanted, desired (by the speaker)
wanted, desired (by someone else)
just, fair, right
lovely, nice (archaic)
this (visible, nearby)
that (visible, far)
that (not visible or not present)
quality, -ness (prefix, often used for comparison)
very, especially ("not very/especially" when used with negative)
knowingly, deliberately, with awareness of one's actions
(suffix converting adjective to adverb)
Word order is typically verb-object-subject (VOS). Adjectives precede nouns.
tulten maūnmi she
They tell the story.
When describing an action as a noun (i.e. forming a gerund) or adjective (i.e. using it to modify the noun), the word order of the described action often changes to SOV. For example:
Rener she maūnmi tultenha na
I want them to tell the story.
Kanri sohu ūstya maūnmi tultenmil ba
The person who tells stories knows many things.
Doing One Thing, (While) Doing Another
The term "ni" is used to indicate an action happening alongside another.
The structure for this is: ACTION1 sū ACTION2 byū ni. ("Byūka" can be used for "byū" when speaking formally.)
Kosanmi trosoani sū teūn byū ni na
I read a book while standing
Naūken sū noekin byū ni sa
You talk in your sleep.
In informal speech can also be simplified by removing "sū" and "byū", and changing the tense/form of the second verb to match the first.
Onoekin, oteūn ni she
They will sleep standing up.
Shasoanis shailis ni, lusū!
Don't walk while reading, idiot!
Two different verbs are used, depending on whether the speaker is describing their own desires, or someone else's.
- rener ...: I want...
- rener ... ha: I want to..., I want (someone/something else) to...
- rener ... yemiha: I want (someone/something) to... (do something to me), I want to be (VERB)ed by (something)
- mūryūn ... ... : (Someone) wants...
- mūryūn ...-ha ... : (Someone) wants to..., (Someone) wants (someone/something else) to...
- mūryūn ...-yemiha ... : (Someone) wants (someone/something else) to... (do something to them), (Someone) wants to be (VERB)ed by (something)
Torener tūe na amsanyemiha
I wanted them to like me.
Mūryūn noekin Nana
Dad wants to sleep
Mūryūn na tūln obusenha she
They want me to lose the (upcoming) game.
Purpose and Service
There are several ways to describe a purpose for action.
Seber: To do something in order to use the result for something, usually a noun that is not a person. Can be thought of as similar to "hoye", but for nouns.
Hoye: To do something in order to perform another specified action. Applies to verbs only.
Nimūr: To do something for someone else, or for their sake.
Sarnem seber orin ū na
I will buy it for dinner.
Shele rona sū maenha hoye, yunmeli mayūt she
They go to the city to meet with their sister.
Baba nimūr troyangi ūs na
I brought something for my mother.
Note that the second sentence, using "hoye", rearranges the phrase "sū maen rona" (VOS) into "rona sū maen" (SOV) for referring to the action like a noun.
Modifying With Verbs
One that verbs, one that is verbed
There are generally two ways to modify nouns with verbs, both using normal verb suffixes. The "mi"/"ūmi" suffix marks one that is VERBed, and the "mil" suffix marks one that VERBs.
When the actor other than the given noun is specified in this structure, it goes between the verb and the noun.
Ngi lū anyan torinūmi komi
The drink that was bought is very small.
Roen tanla trosoanimi na kosanmi
The book I read is in the house.
Roen tanla kaketya elimil kosanmi
The book that has pictures is in the house.