a e i u o ū n y sh b t l t r k ng m h
a = "ah" like in tall or ahh
e = "eh" like in neck or bet
i = "ee" like in she or bee
u = "uh" like in fun or hut
o = "oh" like in bow or oh
ū = "oo" like in too or boot
There is no distinction between the letter t and d, s and z, b and p, k and g, or sh and ch. Their pronunciation can be either by convenience or accent, but tends toward the first. For consistency, all words here are spelled with the first letter and not the second.
Emphasis is typically on the first syllable of a word, or the second and last in words four syllables or longer. However, it is often shifted wherever is convenient in songs, poems, and even day-to-day speech, as it does not change the actual meaning of the words.
When speaking quickly or casually, the short "u" sound is often skipped or not voiced.
they, them (sing.)
they, them (plur.)
she, her (honorific)
he, him (honorific)
they, them (sing. honorific)
someone, a person
Some Other Pronouns
Common Words and Greetings
hello (to someone new, or after long time apart)
hello, how are you?
welcome (greeting into one's home or other space)
I'll see you soon
to exist in/at...
to go/come from...
to come here, to approach (the subject)
to arrive at...
to go to...
to enter (somewhere), to visit
to learn, to discover
to meet with...
to meet ... for the first time
to stand (up or in place)
to be present
to think/feel that something is... (self only)
to think/feel that something is... (other people)
... retner, retener
to want... (one's own desires) (see grammar for full guide)
to want... (someone else wants)
to know, to be familiar with
to explain, to tell
(future tense prefix, formal)
(future tense prefix, informal)
(recent past tense prefix)
(distant past tense prefix)
(non-infinitive present tense (-ing), follows verb)
(negative suffix for verbs ending in -i)
(negative suffix for verbs ending in -n)
(imperative prefix, precedes tense)
(-doer, one who VERBs) (follows negative)
(a thing that is VERBed) (follows negative, replaces "yemi")
(archaic equivalent of "-ūmi")
(makes gerund) (follows negative)
(makes passive voice) (always precedes other suffixes)
then, in that time
the whole time
and then... (finally, after that)
and then (standard verb connector)
while (see grammar for more information)
again and again
finally, at long last
there (distant/unseen, formal)
there (distant/unseen, informal)
Conjuctions and Prepositions
into, at (destination)
(marks a quote)
(suffix, marks nominative case (subject) in a sentence, when needed)
(suffix, marks an indirect subject) (see grammar for more information)
and, along with
also, and (sentence connector)
so (vague), because of this
therefore, as a result
however, but (formal)
What Do I Call This Category
... (byūka) ...seber
for (to be offered to, to be used for)...
for (an action for the sake of)...
... (byūka) ...hoye
for (the purpose of doing)...
(connects a verb phrase to phrase (usually a noun) to modify it)
wanted, desired (by the speaker)
wanted, desired (by someone else)
just, fair, right
especially ("not especially" when used with negative)
(suffix converting adjective to adverb)
Word order is very loosely verb-object-subject (VOS), with the suffix "ai" sometimes used to mark nominative case (it may be omitted if the subject is clear.) Adjectives precede nouns.
(I have no idea what the actual word is for this, or if it's even a thing, so I'm improvising.)
The "indirect subject" marked by the suffix "sen" is a second subject in a sentence, typically for a hypothetical or indirectly referenced action as opposed to a more immediate one being discussed.
Examples of when this pronoun is used include:
- Describing one person wanting another person to do something
- Talking about another's thoughts or paraphrasing someone (usually replaces "ai" in this context)
An example of this form (with both markers, for clarity):
She ai sa sen yarani ha mūryūn
They want you to come to them.
Normally, though, both sentences could drop one or both of these markers.
For example: She, sa yarani ha mūryūn.
Doing One Thing, (While) Doing Another
The term "ni" is used to indicate an action happening alongside another.
The structure for this is: ACTION1 sū ACTION2 byūka ni. ("Byūka" can be shortened to "byū" when speaking informally.)
Na kosanmi trosoani sū teūn byū ni.
I read a book while standing
Sa naūken sū noekin byū ni.
You talk in your sleep.
This can also be simplified by removing "sū" and changing the tense of the second verb to match the first.
She onoekin, oteūn ni.
They will sleep standing up.
To say someone wants something is a little bit complicated. One's own desires are described one way:
- ... retener: I want...
- ... ha retener: I want to...
- ... (ai) ... ha retener: I want (someone else) to...
- ... (ai) ... yemiha retener: I want (someone) to... (do something to me)
While other's desires are described differently, and in one case may need another suffix for a second person:
- ... (ai) ... mūryūn: (Someone) wants...
- ... (ai) ... ha mūryūn: (Someone) wants to...
- ... (ai) ... (sen) ... ha mūryūn: (Someone) wants (someone else) to...
- ... (ai) ... (sen) ... yemiha mūryūn: (Someone) wants (someone else) to... (do something to them)
Purpose and Service
There are several ways to describe a purpose for action.
Seber: to do something in order to use the result for something, usually a noun that is not a person.
Na sarnem seber ū orin
I will buy it for dinner.
Hoye: to do something in order to perform another specified action.
She su rona maen hoye, yun mayūt meli
They go to the city to meet with their sister.
Nimūr: to do something for someone else, or for their sake.
Na baba nimūr ūs troyangi
I brought something for my mother.
Modifying With Verbs
One that verbs, one that is verbed
These two forms are build into verbs. The "mi"/"ūmi" suffix marks one that is VERBed, and the "mil" suffix marks one that VERBs.
Modifying nouns with verbs in other ways
Connect the verb phrase to the noun with "tūa". The subject and object of the verb should be before "tūa." For example:
ke tanla roen tosoani na tūa kosanmi
the book I read is in the house