Phonemes, Phonetics, and Orthography
||a ||i ||u ||e ||o ||s ||th ||sh
||f ||v ||w ||m ||n ||ng ||l ||h
||y ||x ||'
||a ||i ||u ||e ||o ||s ||θ ||ʃ
||f ||v ||w ||m~b ||n ||ŋ ||l ||h
||j ||ħ ||ʔ
Syllable structure is generally (C)V or rarely (C(w/y))V(n/m).
Some dialects pronunce /ħ/, /ʔ/, and /θ/ as /x/, /k/, and /t/.
A prototypical alphabet can be found here.
I (informal, f)
I (informal, m)
she, they (pl)
brother (of a boy), sister (of a girl)
older sister (of a boy), aunt
older brother (of a girl), uncle
younger sister (of a boy)
younger brother (of a girl)
strength, power, energy
sword (loanword, from /kivi/, "blade")
to shine, to sparkle
to outweight, to be greater than
to understand, to know of (trans.), to be wise (intrans.)
to strike, to attack
to rise, to stand up
to have (a trait)
to search for
to speak, to say
to stand, to be (somewhere)
to go (without), to abandon, to be deprived of
to learn (of) (trans.), to be a student (intrans.)
Adjectives, Adverbs, and Prepositions
at the time of...
(binary question marker) (used at beginning of sentence)
Greetings, Niceties, etc.
he'e me waho thatha'i
(formal greeting, lit. "You're coming to us")
ye me waho thathai
(informal version of same)
waho sifa ngo
(common, more neutral greeting, lit. "come in peace")
wo'ao sifa ngo
(common farewell, lit. "go with peace")
please (see grammar notes
an fi e
6 (lit. "5 and 1")
an fi xi
an fi ve
an fi sa
10 (lit. "fives" (dual))
an xi fi e
an xi fi xi
an xi fi ve
an xi fi sa
15 (lit. "fives" (plural))
anan fi e
anan fi xi
anan fi ve
anan fi sa
anan fi an
anan fi an fi e
anan fi an xi
anan xi fi an
anan xi fi an xi
anan xi fi anan
vyo fi e
vyo fi an fi e
vyo fi an xi
vyo fi anan
vyo fi anan xi
Mostly isolating, with postpositional particles. Copula dropping. Word order partly indicates mode: SOV for declarative or interrogative (with a marker for binary questions), SVO for imperative.
Plurals form by reduplicating first syllable, or first two if the first syllable has a null onset and no coda. (Ex: /ufa/ -> /ufaufa/ but /ona/ -> /onona/.) The word for two (/xi/) is often used as a dual suffix, instead of pluralizing for two things.
Ewa Sio does not distinguish between future and present tense, only past and non-past. Negatives are made by preceding a verb with /voa/ ("not").
|Past Continuous||hi'i ...||was VERBing|
|Past Perfect||hi'i ... hu'e||have VERBed|
|Non-Past Continuous||ngia ...||is VERBing|
|Non-Past Perfect||... hu'e||has VERBed|
The phrases for "that which VERBS" and "that which is VERBed" are "ela [VERB]" and "ewa [VERB]" respectively. The /ela/ and /ewa/ are from the nominative and accusative forms of /e/ ("one").
Requests are made by incorporating the word /sihosi/ ("please") somewhere into the sentence. Placement can vary significantly, but the end of the sentence is usually seen as politer or nicer sounding than the beginning, especially when phrasing the request as a binary question with /hoi/.