Phonemes, Phonetics, and Orthography
||a ||i ||u ||e ||o ||s ||th ||sh
||f ||v ||w ||m ||n ||ng ||l ||h
||y ||x ||'
||a ||i ||u ||e ||o ||s ||θ ||ʃ
||f ||v ||w ||m~b ||n ||ŋ ||l ||h
||j ||ħ ||ʔ
Syllable structure is generally (C)v or (C(w/y))v(n/m).
Some dialects pronunce /ħ/, /ʔ/, and /θ/ as /x/, /k/, and /t/.
I (informal, f)
I (informal, m)
she, they (pl)
brother (of a boy), sister (of a girl)
older sister (of a boy), aunt
older brother (of a girl), uncle
younger sister (of a boy)
younger brother (of a girl)
sword (loanword, from /kivi/, "blade")
to shine, to sparkle
to outweight, to be greater than
to understand, to know of (trans.), to be wise (intrans.)
to strike, to attack
to rise, to stand up
to have (a trait)
to search for
to speak, to say
to stand, to be (somewhere)
to learn of (trans.), to be a student (intrans.)
Adjectives, Adverbs, and Prepositions
(nominative) (often omitted)
(binary question marker) (used at end of sentence)
an fi e
an fi xi
an fi ve
an fi sa
Mostly isolating, with a simple case system via postpositional particles. Copula dropping. Word order partly indicates mode: SOV for declarative or interrogative (with a marker for binary questions), SVO for imperative.
Plurals form by reduplicating first syllable, or first two if the first syllable has a null onset and no coda. (Ex: "ufa" -> "ufaufa" but "ona" -> "onona")
Ewa Sio does not distinguish between future and present tense, only past and non-past. Negatives are made by preceding a verb with /voa/ ("not").
|Past Continuous||hi'i ...||was VERBing|
|Past Perfect||hi'i ... hu'e||have VERBed|
|Non-Past Continuous||ngia ...||is VERBing|
|Non-Past Perfect||... hu'e||has VERBed|
The phrases for "that which VERBS" and "that which is VERBed" are "ela [VERB]" and "ewa [VERB]" respectively. The /ela/ and /ewa/ are from the nominative and accusative forms of /e/ ("one").